Climate Change & Universe Expansion
(And that inverted bowl we call sky)
We live in an expanding universe and this extraordinary evidence or
discovery was given by Edwin Hubble and other astronomers . Hubble
discovered that farther a galaxy is the faster it recedes from us. This is
the famous Hubble’s Law. v=H (naught) r (v is the recessional velocity ,r
is the distance and H naught called Hubble’s constant).
The expansion of the universe could have been predicted a century
before Hubble by solving Olber’s paradox .This paradox was also called
as the dark night sky paradox. This states that if universe is static ,
infinitely large and old and with an infinite number of stars distributed
uniforming , then the night sky should be bright . Starting with this
hypothesis and ideas about the universe expansion .We will discuss
about life and climate change.
So, what is life? Life is a self sustained chemical system capable of
undergoing Darwinian evolution was defined by Gerald Joyce. Evolution
being a fundamental characteristics of life. Evolution is the process by
which variation in a population of an organisms placed under an
environmental condition results in the selection of surviving organisms
that pass their traits on to subsequent generation.
Today astrobiologists tend to think that we can create working
definition that are useful in the search for life elsewhere ,such as Joyce
definition quoted earlier.
When we breath in we should appreciate that the earth’s atmosphere
has everything needed to support life on earth . Earth’s atmosphere is
composed of 78%(Nitrogen),Oxygen(21%),Argon(1%) and trace
amounts of carbon dioxide ,neon, helium,methane,krypton,nitrous
oxide etc. The atmosphere we have today is very different to that of
from the earth’s early atmosphere .The earliest bacteria , known as
cyanobacteria, were probably the first oxgen producing organisms on
Nowadays climatic change is a major problem in our world and many
other scientists and businessman like Bill Gates are concerned and
looking further for solution .Think of some invention that help fight
climate change .The first thing which comes to our mind is wind
turbines and solar panels which can reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Renewables are getting cheaper and many other countries rely on it &
less on fossil fuels for electricity needs.
People who are worried about climate change always hope to
decarbonize the way we generate electricity .Making electricity is
responsible for only 25% of all greenhouse emissions each year. If we
could generate all electricity we need without emitting a single
molecule of greenhouse gases , we could cut total emissions.
To prevent worst effects of climatic change , we need to
get to zero net greenhouse gas emissions in every sector of the
economy within 50 years. *Report of (IPCC special report on the
impacts of global warming of 1.5 degreesC above pre-industrial levels
and related global gas greenhouse gas emission pathways.)
Greenhouse gas emissions comes from :-Electricity(25%) ,
(21%),Transportation(14%),Buildings(6%).To stop the planet from
getting substantially warmer , we need breakthroughs in how we make
things ,grow food and move people & goods. There is a need to invest
in lots of research and development across all five years ,now. Since
2015 launch of mission innovation-two dozens governments that
committed to doubling their spending on clean –energy R&D-the
amount of funding available has gone up by more than $3billion a year.
Earth orbiting satellites & other technological advances have enabled
scientists to see the big picture ,collecting many different types of
information about our planet &it’s climate on a global scale. The heat
trapping nature of CO2 & other gases was demonstrated in the mid-19
century. Toughest global challenge facing by population is climate
change that has no borders and to battle it requires coordinated work
by all countries.
The main source of climate change is global warming which has many
upshot on physical , biological systems .
Other causes such as destruction of marine ecosystems-the oceans are
also carbon sinks, absorbing upto 50% of CO2. Problem is that when
they reach their limit, the ocean acidifies and causes death& disease
among marine flora & fauna.
Did you know when humans first begin to cause climate change?
Industrial revolution was the turning point when greenhouse gases
entered the atmosphere began to soar. The main impact was the
increase in global temperature of the planet which has risen
1.1degreeC. Since this period, although it is estimated that, by the end
of the present century ,the thermometer could rise by
2.7degreeC.Environmental effects on ecosystems and desertification
,melting of poles and rising sea levels, extreme weather,acidification of
the oceans, extinction of species, massive migration.
Avoiding climate change by mitigation . Mitigation consist of launching
actions to reduce and limit greenhouse gas emissions with the aim of
preventing the global temperature of the planet from continuing to
increase. Climate changes is interfering with the eradication of deadly
epidemics with rising temperatures helping mosquitoes spread malaria
in higher places in Africa. Other potentially deadly consequences of
climate change are intense cyclones which leave an increased risk of
infections like AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria. Warmer oceans surface
waters are increasing the intensity & frequency of storms.
Emergency resources has been funded after Idai cyclone which came
up with malaria cases. Malaria infected 219 million people worldwide
in 2017, killing 435,000 according to World Health Organization. The
inappropriate use of nitrogen in farming is also causing climate change
by leaking into environment ,polluting air, water, land in process.
Bill Gates is backing the first high- altitude experiment of one approach
called Solar geoengineering . Thousand of planes would fly at high
altitudes, spraying millions of tons of particles around the planet to
create a massive chemical cloud that would cool the surface . Studies
have found that it could reduce the rate of sea level rise & tropical
storms strength can be reduced .This technologically could cause
massive changes in weather pattern and eradicate blue sky. In this way
climate change worst effects can be prevented.
By – Pratyush Sarin (Dccorona`s Writer)